Zodiac Killer’s name decrypted, Joe Bevilacqua

In the summer 2017, I knew a man named Joe Bevilacqua. One day, we were on the balcony of his home in a town near Florence, facing he Autostrada del Sole and the hills of Chianti. I gave him the first page of Zodiac’s letter with his encrypted identity. Joe started to read it aloud, translating each row in Italian. When he reached the thirteen symbols, he smiled: “Let’s forget it”. Then he said: “This sentence is strange”. Joe was talking about the row immediately under the cipher. He had translated in Italian “cerous” as “waxy”. “Why did he write it?” he asked me. “Why did he not write ‘I am curious’?”.

A few weeks later, when I reflected on Joe’s insistence about “cerous”, I became aware that this word could be fundamental to decrypt the cipher[1].

One thing that I noticed while developing a decryption of the “Zodiac’s name cipher, three years ago, was that the poem “Aeneid” by Latin poet Virgil and main character “Aeneas” were the only words starting with “Aen”, in the Oxford paper dictionary I had consulted[2]. Finally, I have discovered that this classical reading was a key element for the precise identification of Zodiac more than how it had been to achieve the solution[3].

“Cerous” and the Aeneid are both important points of the solution, even if my past analysis based on them was not definitively complete and correct as this one wants to be.

Most of Zodiac’s references were popular in 1969-1970. Peculiarities are his quotations of Woody Allen’s “Take the money and run” and actor Bekim Fehmiu, other than letters and symbols he took from works related to ancient civilizations.

At the top, Zodiac’s name cipher. Below, the references for the decryption

Xerox copies of the letter (FBI samples)


Page 1

Page 2

How the code is built

The “Zodiac’s name cipher” is not based on a substitution code. Symbols are just pieces of a puzzle game.


Zodiac’s name was presumably encrypted in the 13 symbols row on page 1 of the letter that the murderer sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20, 1970.

Soon after this communication from Zodiac was received, the FBI was asked to decrypt the cipher, but they could not[4]. The text was too short to be reached if it had been made using a substitution code. However, according to the Army Security Agency, Zodiac received military training in cryptography, as reported in a document delivered to the SFPD through the Army CID at the Presidio[5]. He must know that the cipher could not be “cracked” without clues, like that one he put in his Halloween card[6] (i.e. the letter Q, according to the solution I published here).

Search for clues

On page 1 of the letter, Zodiac asked the readers if they had already cracked the previous cipher. He said that he was “cerous” – instead of curious – to know the amount of money of his reward. He added that he is not the author of a recent bombing at a police station, even if there is “more glory” in killing a cop instead of a “cid”. He also wrote that he had been swamped out by the rain.

On page 2, there is a sketch of a bomb with the information on how it was set up and would work.

1. “Set up like this”

The first block of the code is built using an ancient Greek word in capital letters, ANETHEKE, which appeared in the book “The alphabet” by Frederic W. Goudy as an inscription from the temple of Poseidon on Lake Taenarus, in Laconia, Greece[7]. This finding was first published on the website zodiackiller.com[8].

The word ANETHEKE matches the structure of the first part of the cipher with a few differences

Zodiac effected three changes to the original inscription. He:

  1. switched E with N
  2. put a Celtic cross in place of a Theta
  3. substituted the second and third E with a symbol 8 circled

The Celtic cross was the Zodiac’s signature. It is probable that the murderer stole both his name and signature from the brand of the watch manufacturer “Zodiac”. The most publicized product of the Zodiac in the late 60s appears to have been the diver’s watch Sea Wolf[9].

The Celtic cross is similar to the type of Theta in the inscription reported on page 11 of “The Alphabet” by Goudy and can explain why Zodiac chose to make this substitution. For its symbolic importance, it may encrypt an initial.

The reason why Zodiac used the word ANETHEKE in his code is related to how the code is built. Indeed, this ancient Greek word translates “set up”[10], the verb that the author of the cipher put in the first sentence on page 2, before an explanation of how the “bomb” works.

Method of decryption suggested by ANETHEKE

2. Let the sunshine in”

There is a link between the cipher and the first part of page 2 based on the connection “ANETHEKE – Set up” that suggests the method of decryption.


Overlap the sketch of the street on the cipher leaving one lane for the cipher and the other one for the bus.


The letter “I” is circled by the sun. Symbol is crossed by the first arrow that ends in correspondence to the route of the bus. The result of the collision between the bus and sunshine decoded the seventh symbol of the cipher, which substitutes “I”. In the first case, an “E” results from the intersection of the bus and ray beam. In the third case, there is not a letter to substitute, but the second arrow translates the dash to the word “cerous” and cancels the letters “rous”. This ray beam coupled with the action of the second arrow under the letter “I” makes the word “ICE” from the misspelled word “cerous”, which could be a tip for the decryption of the third .

I, E, Ice

The sunshine decrypts the first two symbols wherewith Zodiac substituted the E in ANETHEKE. It also suggests forming the word ICE the translation of the third .

The sunbeam intersects the bus in its route

The symbol 8 and sun disc

The symbol is composed of the “8” depicted on posters of the musical Hair[11] and the sun disc drawn by Zodiac on page 2 inside which two letters are to decrypt and the dash to be moved.

A tip

Aquarius – Let the sunshine in

This part of the code is based on the recording “Aquarius-Let the sunshine in” performed by The Fifth Dimension and released in 1969. Thanks to it, the band won the Grammy award for Record of the Year in 1970[12].

The Fifth’s Dimension song was an arrangement of “Aquarius” and “Let the sunshine in”, two different musical pieces both taken from the musical “Hair”[13] which was on the scene at the Geary Theatre, in San Francisco[14], few yards away from the point where Zodiac hailed the cab driven by Stine, on October 11, 1969[15]. In 1969-1970, the musical was a success as well as “Aquarius-let the sunshine in”. When Zodiac mailed his letter, “Hair” was performed at the Orpheum, on Market & Hyde[16].

A symbol 8 (picture on the right) was represented on the posters of the musical as a composition of hair, while a lying “8” was depicted on the “I” of Hair in the title, also in the advertisements[17].

Click to enlarge


“Let the sunshine in” is the last song in the official soundtrack of the musical Hair, while the first one is “Aquarius”, followed by “Donna”, like the possible Zodiac’s victim on 6 September 1970[18]. A postcard from Zodiac seemed to hint at his responsibility in the disappearance of Donna Lass from South Lake Tahoe[19].

The references for the second part of the cipher must be found

Crossed in green – the changes in ANETHEKE that have been explained. Crossed in red – symbols effectively decrypted

3. L’acqua

Another reference of the code comes from an ancient civilization. The anchor-like symbol is the Bhrami letter “Ya”.

A search for the anchor-like symbol has resulted in the discovery below

The drawing of the seal above accompanied by symbols L, ACHH, MI, YA, was published in “Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum” (inscriptions from India) by Alexander Cunningham. The two symbols used by Zodiac were part of a tentative of translation of the inscription on the seal[20].

The words MI and YA are anagrammed as the first letters above and below the cipher (“My” and “I a”), while their respective translation in Bhrami, the Taurus and anchor-like symbols, were inserted in the cipher. The sun disc must be added to the Taurus symbol the same way of the other .

MI and YA

The two symbols and M are above the syntagma “cerous”

The word cerous is a misspelling of “curious”. It is not realistic that was not an intentional mistake. Why did Zodiac write it? It is useful to obtain “ice”, anything else?

In English, the word “cerous” exists just as a technical term related to the word “cerium”[21], a metal. However, the Latin word “cera”, wax, is the main standard suffix in English for words starting with “cera”, “ceri” or “cero”[22].

It is possible that the word “cerous” means “waxy” like the similar “cerosus” in Latin. If Zodiac wanted to suggest “waxy”, the etymology of this neologism would be as follows.

SEALING WAX is the simplest term formed by a combination of the words “wax” (from “cerous”) and “seal” (from “seal stone”)[23].

In the past centuries, this substance was used for sealing letters and certifying official documents. It is a compound principally made by shellac[24], also called lac[25], like the insect that produces it.

Lac is a 3-letters word, the same number as the symbols above “cerous”. “A” may decrypt the third 8 hit by the ray beam

The third formed by the disc of the sun and the Taurus symbol taken from Cunningham’s translation of the script on the seal stone of Harappa[26] indicates that the letter to decrypt has a connection with the word ICE[27].

The individuation of the sequence ILAC is helpful to find almost the whole solution, not only this link.

Surnames containing the sequence “ILAC” in the list from the U.S. Census 2010[28]

Bevilacqua[29] and Ilacqua fit the decryption and contain the word “acqua”, “water”[30].

“A” is linked to ICE, as the first letter of “ACQUA”, water, last part of Zodiac’s name

4. Qua-nam

Zodiac used the song “Aquarius/Let the sunshine in” for his encryption probably because his surname contained the word “acqua”.

The last part of the word “water” in Italian is QUA. If it is the right decryption, there should be a link with NAM. What type of link?

The syntagma “as to how”, isolated from the context, appears to be linked to the part of the cipher over it (NAM) and the solution. Indeed, QUA and NAM form the rare Latin word “qua-nam”, which is the translation of “how”, “as to how”, “in what manner”[31]. This is a confirmation of the decryption.

“It is a mystery as to how dolphins can hear”[32]

“Quanam” is reported in almost all the Latin dictionaries that quoted it (not reported for brevity) in this sentence from Pliny. It is just the last reference to the water of several ones met in the decryption. The complete list follows:

  1. ANETHEKE, probably an inscription from a temple of Poseidon, the god of the sea[33]
  2. Zodiac, probably the diver’s watch Sea Wolf[34]
  3. The word ice[35]
  4. Aquarius[36]
  5. Finally, dolphins’ method of hearing

The part of the decryption related to the word “acqua” matches my solution of the Zodiac’s Halloween riddle on the letter “Q”, explaining why the murderer quoted an issue of the comic book “Tim Holt”, and copied a cattle brand on a bull depicted on a cover of Red Ryder[37] (a bull is also engraved on the seal from which decryption Zodiac copied the anchor-like symbol in his cipher, as reported at the beginning of the previous chapter).

Zodiac’s Halloween riddle solution

Water theory

Most of Zodiac’s crime and his letters have some link to the water, not just the decryption and method that lead the solution of this cipher, as it is reported below.

Robert Graysmith’s “Zodiac” reads[38]

“I thought it was strange that the killings so far had taken place in locations tha had a form of water in their name: Lake Herman Road, Blue Rock Springs, Lake Berryessa, and Washington Street, which was quite close to Lake Street.”

Riverside and Lake Tahoe match the “water theory” by Graysmith and also the two phone calls to the police by Zodiac were made from phone boots in locations linked to the water: Springs Road in Vallejo (5th July 1969) [39] and a laundry[40] near a car wash in Napa (27th September 1969)[41]. At Lake Berryessa, he also tied the victims with a clothesline[42].

Zodiac’s references to the water are many also in his letters: his signature possibly plagiarized from the dive watch Zodiac Sea Wolf[43]; «Water hose», August 4, 1969[44]; a postcard with the sentence «I just washed my pen», November 8, 1969[45]; «I am drownding (sic)», December 20, 1969[46]; «I was swamped out by the rain», April 20, 1970[47]; «Blue meannies (sic)», from Yellow Submarine (The Beatles’ movie), April 20, 1970[48]; «I shall listen to their pleass (sic) for water», July 26, 1970[49]; «I am crack (instead of water) proof», October 5, 1970[50]; «By fire, by gun, by knife, by rope (Zodiac omitted “by water”)», October 27, 1970, Halloween card[51], (based on the cover of Tim Holt No. 30)[52]; «I am crack (instead of water) proof» and «blue meannies (sic)» again, March 13, 1971[53]. In the end, Zodiac’s last signature on January 29, 1974, is a text on a drowning[54].

5. Bekim

Actors Bekim Fehmiu and Candice Bergen in “The adventurers” (1970)

Just the reference of the M is still to be discovered. Why did Zodiac include it in this part of his cipher between ANETHEKE and Mi Ya? The answer is that M forms the word “EKIM” when is coupled with the K from ANETHEKE, and the E, I from the decryption. A search of this term in the newspaper editions of 1970 on the website newspapers.com has turned out as result actor “Bekim Fehmiu” and the name “Ekim”[55].

The adding of an M is justifiable to encrypt another part of the text. Which one?

Fehmiu starred as Ulysses in the Italian tv series “The Odyssey” first aired in 1968[56]. In spring 1970, he appeared as the main character Dax Xenos in the Hollywoodian movie “The adventurers” where he played together with Candice Bergen[57]. This expensive film was screened at the Alexandria on Geary Street at 18th, in San Francisco, and in other eight theatres/drive-in in the Bay Area, just before[58] and after Zodiac mailed his letter[59].

The third result for the search term “Bekim” in the newspaper editions of 1970 on newspapers.com[60] is a piece entitled “10 Million risked on an unknown” published in the San Francisco Examiner on 3 January 1970[61].

On the same page, there are advertisements of successful movies like “I am curious” and “Take the money and run”[62]. The famous Allen’s comedy is one of Zodiac’s references too[63].

The TV series “The Odissey” (1968) starring Bekim Fehmiu was aired on the first channel of the Italian public broadcasting in July 1974[64], a few months after Zodiac had mailed his last official letter[65]. On September 14, 1974, the “Italian” serial killer called “Monster of Florence” began with his trail of homicides near the Tuscan city at Le Fontanine (little fountains) in Rabatta. According to a postman condemned as an accomplice of the Monster, Mario Vanni, the real murderer was an American named “Ulysses”[66].

Vanni: It was Ulysses to… who killed all that people! Black!
Nesi: Who is black?
Vanni: He is an American.

Conversation on the American suspect “Ulysses”, Monster of Florence case (July 30, 2003)

The Odissey in the television schedule of La Nazione on July 28, 1974

The keyword “Bekim” encrypts the letter B of “Bevilacqua”

Zodiac’s surname is Bevilacqua, the first one containing “ILAC” for number of individuals in the USA[67]

The substitution M/L is also in my decryption of the Mt Diablo cipher[68]

6. Take the money and run

Now it seems that every reference that Zodiac chose to compose his cipher has been discovered, although the substitution of N with E in ANETHEKE is still unexplained. This switch could mean that the second letter is N or the third one is E.

Three letters remain to decrypt. The switch of N with E should lead Zodiac’s full name

It is not immediately clear why Zodiac switched letters N and E, however, the most common words starting with “Aen” in a dictionary seems to be the Aeneid by poet Virgil and Aeneas[69].

A reading of the newspapers dating back to the week when Zodiac killed cab driver Paul Stine suggests “Aeneas/Aeneid” could be the main reason why Zodiac switched N and E and, first of all, chose  ANETHEKE as a reference for his cipher, which permitted him this wordplay.

Zodiac wrote in his letter:

Why did he talk about the rain? The last sentence of the famous comedy the piece on the Examiner was talking about is:

“Do you know if it’s raining out?”[70]

New Jersey criminal Virgil Starkwell, performed by reddish, bespectacled Woody Allen, said it in “Take the money and run”[71]. The movie, entirely filmed in San Francisco, started in the city, on October 8, 1969, at the Bridge on Geary at Blake[72], few blocks away from the point where Stine was found dead three days later. In the same week, “I am curious” started too at the Gateway, while “Hair” was already at the Geary Theatre[73].

Zodiac’s disguise

Zodiac and Woody Allen (1969)

Zodiac’s sentence on his disguise in the murder of Paul Stine[74]

Advertisements of the movie “Take the money and run” dating back to a few days before the murder

S.F. Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, Datebook, October 5, 1969

On October 18, 1969, ten days after the debut of “Take the money and run” at the Bridge, “The Mikado” performed by the Lamplighters started at the Presentation Theatre[75]. Zodiac quoted this comedy by William S. Gilbert and Arthur S. Sullivan in 1970[76] and 1974[77], when he used an excerpt from it as his signature[78].

On September 21, 1969, the Woody Allen Show saw the participation of Candice Bergen and the Fith Dimension[79]. It was just one week before Zodiac’s attack at Lake Berryessa[80].

The first comedy by Allen performed on Broadway is “Don’t drink the water”[81]. In November 1969, the film taken from Allen’s work was on the screen at the Alexandria, San Francisco[82].

7. Joe

The classical male names with an N as second letter are only two, according to the source nameberry.com: Eno and Enu. On the contrary, several names end with E[83].

The switch N/E by Zodiac may indicate that the third symbol of the cipher, N, substitutes E.

The syntagma “I am” coupled with E and AEN forms a u-shape sentence that reads: “I am Enea”. Enea is Aeneas in Italian[84].

Two letters are still to be decrypted

The conclusion of the decryption is hinted at by Zodiac himself at the end of page 2 of his letter, where he placed the last “I” just above the equals sign of the equation Celtic cross = I0[85] (picture below). The word “Io” translates “I” in Italian[86].

Ten or “Io”?

I am Joe

The substitutions O/J and I/O in my decryption of the Mt Diablo cipher confirm this conclusion[87]

“I” was also the first encrypted letter of Zodiac’s first cipher[88], like Bettye Harden, one of the solutor of the first Zodiac’s cipher, had intuited[89]

“Harden was ready to give up on the cryptogram the next morning, but he couldn’t convince Bettye to stop. Even though at time she didn’t have the slighest idea what she was doing, she kept working; eventually, Harden joined her.
Bettye was of the opinion that the killer was such an egomaniac that he would start out with ‘I’.”

Zodiac Killer’s full name



[1] Chapter “L’acqua”.

[2] The Oxford paperback dictionary, 1988, p. 12, see also chapter “Take the money and run”.

[3] See chapter “Take the money and run”.

[4] FBI laboratory, report on specimens Qc45, Qc46, Qc47, April 28, 1970, FBI File No 9-49911.

[5] FBI San Francisco, airtel, January 22, 1970, 9-49911, see the excerpt on p. 12. Source: zodiackiller.com.

[6] Zodiac, Halloween card to Paul Avery, October 27, 1970 (zodiackillerfact.com). See my solution here.

[7] Frederic W. Goudy, The Alphabet, 1922, p. 11.

[8] zodiackiller.com/MyNameIs.html.

[9] Sunday S.F. Examiner and Chronicle, California Living, week of November 12, 1967, p. 54. Several advertisements of Zodiac watches were published in U.S. newspapers in 1967. Source: newspapers.com.

[10] James Whitley, The archaeology of ancient Greece, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 140-141.

[11] Hair, poster, A.C.T.’s Geary Theatre, San Francisco, 1969/1970, see also the advertisements in this post, other than notes 60, 64, 77.

[12] “5th Dimension gets Grammy”, San Francisco Examiner, May 8, 1970, p. 34. Source: newspapers.com.

[13] Mary Campbell, AP, “It’s a ripe age for the 5th Dimension”, San Francisco Examiner, June 6, 1969, p. 26.

[14] San Francisco Examiner, October 11, 1969, p.10.

[15] California Department of Justice, Zodiac Homicides, special report, 1971. Source: zodiackillerfact.com.

[16] San Francisco Examiner, March 24, 1970, p. 24. Source: newspapers.com.

[17] See advertisements in this post and their related notes: 60, 64, 77.

[18] MClatchy Newspapers Service AP and UPI, “Zodiac’s postcard”, The Sacramento Bee, March 27, 1971, p. D2.

[19] “Hunt for nurse at dead end”, San Francisco Examiner, September 26, 1970, p. 4.

[20] Alexander Cunningham, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Volume I, plate XXVIII.

[21] The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, Volume XI, The Century Co., p. 224.

[22] Ibidem, pp. 222-224.

[23] William Haynes, Chemical trade names and commercial synonyms, 2nd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co, p. 377.

[24] Ibidem.

[25] Andrew Ure et al., Dictionary of Chemistry, Vol. II, Robert Desilver, 1821, “Lac”.

[26] See the part dedicated to symbols “My Ya” and the beginning of chapter “L’acqua”.

[27] See chapter “Let the sunshine in”.

[28] U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2010, surnames occurring at least 100 times. File downloadable also from this link.

[29] Bevilacqua, en.wikipedia.org/wik/Bevilacqua_(surname).

[30] Collins Italian College Dictionary, 1991, P. 6.

[31] Harper’s Latin dictionary founded on the translation of Freund’s Latin-German lexicon, American Book Company, p. 1505.

[32] Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, Liber XI, paragraph 137, la.wikisource.org/wiki/Naturalis_Historia/Liber_XI.

[33] Chapter “Set up like this”.

[34] Ibidem.

[35] Chapter “Let the sunshine in”.

[36] Chapter “L’acqua”.

[37] Francesco Amicone, Solution to Zodiac’s Halloween riddle, 2020.

[38] Robert Graysmith, Zodiac, Berkley Publishing Group, 1986, edition 2007, p. 146.

[39] zodiacciphers.com/zodiac-news/the-recollection-of-the-july-5th-1969-payphone-call

[40] zodiacciphers.com/zodiac-news/the-payphone-call-at-main-street.

[41] “Manhunt for crazed killer”, The Napa Register, October 4, 1969, p. 3a. Source: newspapers.com.

[42] The Napa Register, October 1, 1969, front page. Source: newspapers.com.

[43] Sunday S.F. Examiner and Chronicle, California Living, week of November 12, 1967, p. 54. Several advertisements of Zodiac watches were published in U.S. newspapers in 1967. Source: newspapers.com.

[44] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Examiner, August 4, 1969.

[45] Zodiac, postcard to the San Francisco Chronicle, November 8, 1969.

[46] Zodiac, letter to Melvin Belli, December 20, 1969.

[47] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, April 20, 1970.

[48] Ibidem. The same term compared also in the letter sent by Zodiac to the S.F. Chronicle on March 13, 1971.

[49] Zodiac, letter to the S.F. Chronicle, July 26, 1970.

[50] Zodiac, card to the S.F. Chronicle, October 5, 1970. The same term was also used in Zodiac’s letter postmarked “March 13, 1971”.

[51] Zodiac, Halloween card to Paul Avery, October 27, 1970.

[52] tapatalk.com/groups/zodiackillerfr/found-it-by-fire-by-gun-by-knife-by-rope-t7089.html.

[53] Zodiac, letter to the Los Angeles Times, March 13, 1971.

[54] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, January 29, 1974.

[55] newspapers.com/search/#query=EKIM&dr_year=1970-1970.

[56] en.wikipedia.org/Bekim_Fehmiu.

[57] “Three films open this week”, San Francisco Examiner, March 23, 1970, p. 40. Source: newspapers.com.

[58] San Francisco Examiner, March 24, 1970, p.24. Source: newspapers.com.

[59] San Francisco Examiner, April 21, 1970, p.28. Source: newspapers.com.

[60] newspapers.com/search/#query=BEKIM&dr_year=1970-1970.

[61] Vernon Scott, “10 Million risked on an unknown”, San Francisco Examiner, January 3, 1970, p. 10. Source: newspapers.com.

[62] San Francisco Examiner, January 3, 1970, p. 10. Source: newspapers.com.

[63] See chapter “Take the money and run”.

[64] La Nazione, July 5-28, 1974, p.9.

[65] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, January 29, 1974.

[66] Gruppo Investigativo Delitti Seriali, transcription of the conversation on the American suspect “Ulysses”, June 30, 2003, p.10 and following. Source: debunkingjoediac.files.wordpress.com/2018/07/colloquionesivanni.pdf.

[67] U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2010, surnames occurring at least 100 times, see chapter “L’acqua”. File downloadable also from this link.

[68] Francesco Amicone, Solution to the Mt Diablo cipher, 2020.

[69] The Oxford paperback dictionary, 1988, p. 12.

[70] Woody Allen, “Take the money and run”, Palomar Pictures International, 1969. Source: youtu.be.com/watch?v=2AV1eyf1Pgw, minute 4.10.

[71] Ibidem. See also the transcription here: script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/t/take-the-money-and-run-script.html.

[72] S.F. Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, Datebook 5-11 October. Source: newspapers.com.

[73] San Francisco Examiner, October 11, 1969, p. 10, see chapter “Let the sunshine in”. Source: newspapers.com.

[74] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, November 9, 1969, p. 1.

[75] San Francisco Examiner, October 18, 1969, pp. 8 and 10. Source: newspapers.com.

[76] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, July 26, 1970.

[77] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, January 29, 1974.

[78] Ibidem. See chapter “L’acqua”.

[79] San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, September 21, 1969, p. 5. For Candice Bergen, see also note 60. For the Fifth Dimension, see also chapter “Let the sunshine in”. Source: newspapers.com.

[80] The Napa Register, October 1, 1969, front page. Source: newspapers.com.

[81] John Chapman, “Woody Allen farce, ‘Don’t drink the water,’ stirs up laughter”, Daily News, November 18, 1966, p. 76. Source: newspapers.com.

[82] Stanley Eichelbaum, “Screen renders ‘Water’ non-potable”, San Francisco Examiner, November 20, 1969, p. 28. Source: newspapers.com.

[83] nameberry.com.

[84] Guglielmo Comelati and John Davenport, Dictionary of the Italian and English Languages, Longman and Co. et al, 1854.

[85] Zodiac, letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, April 20, 1970, p. 2.

[86] Collins Italian College Dictionary, 1991, P. 167.

[87] Francesco Amicone, Solution to the Mt Diablo cipher, 2020.

[88] “Salinas teacher breaks code on Vallejo murders”, San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, p.24. Source: newspapers.com.

[89] Robert Graysmith, Zodiac, Berkley Publishing Group, 1986, edition 2007, p. 53.

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